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A recently published special issue of nanomaterials explores the recent advances related to nano-engineered strategies for biomaterials and implants in bone tissue engineering. Novel nano-engineering strategies are showing promising results with regard to enhanced osteogenesis at the implant/biomaterial and bone tissue interface. Also, nano-fibrous scaffolds produced from natural and synthetic materials have shown promise in promoting bone formation.
Biomaterial research on bone regeneration has advanced its focus from macro- and micro- properties to nano-scale characteristics that mimic the host tissue biology.
Nano-engineered biomaterials exceed the bone regeneration and linking performance of conventional macro- and micro-scaled biomaterials. Resorbable biomaterials, Extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimicking nanofibrous scaffolds, and nanoscale modified non-resorbable metal-based implants have shown remarkable outcomes.
Leading scientists worldwide have contributed to a total of 8 original research and review papers that show how novel nano-engineering strategies hold great potential in bone tissue engineering.
Some salient points from the current research:
- Hydroxyapatite (HA) is biocompatible and non-immunogenic and has been widely used as a scaffold or towards surface modification for biomaterials or implants. Inorganic nanomaterial-based therapy focuses on nano hydroxyapatites, nano-silica, and metallic nanomaterials to increase biomineralization and bone defect repairing.
- Biomimetic HA may be effective at advancing osteogenesis and mechanical strength, but tissue volume remains challenging. This issue was addressed in an in-vitro study. The results showed that the composite maintained the hydrogel volume and increased the cell viability and bone differentiation ability. Biomimetic and biogenic Hydroxyapatite (HA) based nanomaterials have promising bone regeneration applications.
- Human teeth-derived bioceramics showed no adverse effects and had good adherence to human alveolar stem cells. Furthermore, the bioceramic-treated defects in mice calvaria resulted in accelerated vascularization, demonstrating the capability of such biomaterials in bone regeneration.
- 3D fibrous scaffolds enable cellular interaction through nanoscale focal adhesion complexes. The primary human osteoblast sensing and responses to polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous 3D scaffolds caused immature vinculin focal adhesion formation and decreased the nuclear localization of the mechanosensor-yes-associated protein (YAP). Moreover, when aligned fibers compared to random fibers, they elongated the cell and nucleus shape and activated global DNA methylation.
- Ti-based implants are bioinert, and in patients with poor bone quality /quantity, increased bioactivity performance is needed to harmonize osteogenesis. Therefore, surface modification of Ti-based implants using various topographical, chemical, biological, and therapeutic strategies in the macro-, micro-, and nano-scales have been performed. Results showed nano-engineered Ti implants have surpassed macro-and micro-scale implants by attaining appropriate bioactivity and therapeutic performance.
- Surface characterization and cell response evaluation (MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells) in vitro research confirms the influence of incorporating bioactive agents, such as HA and Mg particles, onto Ti implants for inducing bone formation.
- Cost-effective TiB-reinforced alpha Ti matrix composite (TMC) characterization revealed an increase in hardness, modulus, and hardness to modulus ratio. Thus, it is confirmed that TMC has an excellent performance in biomedical implant applications.
This is the summary of a special editorial by Dr. Karan Gulati, Dr. Abdal-hay, and Dr. Ivanovski that talks about recent advancements in nano-engineered biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. This editorial was published in the Special Issue "Novel Nano-Engineered Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering" of Nanomaterials. This special issue covers the current nanotechnology advances, clinical translation challenges, and prospects, enclosing both resorbable polymeric and non-resorbable metallic biomaterials that enable controlled and customized organization of osteogenesis at the biomaterial–bone interface.