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Dental implants are aesthetic and essential for replacing missing or highly infected teeth in diabetic or non-diabetic patients. On the contrary, dental implant failure in diabetic patients is a serious issue due to the lack of osseointegration and immunoregulatory incompetency.
This study utilized carbon nanomaterials because they can enhance the characteristics of biomimetic dental implants, along with the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and drug delivery properties that are important for the success of dental implants.
Diabetic patients are more prone to develop peri-implant infection and decreased osseointegration because the disabled glycemic control elevates the release of toxic metabolites (advanced glycation end products AGE’s), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which leads to implant failure. Carbon nanodots, graphene, Nanodiamonds, and carbon nanotubes are Carbon-based nanoparticles used widely in dentistry, biomedical fields, and applications such as biomedical imaging, nanotherapeutics, and cancer therapy. The hypotheses addressed in this review are about biomimetic dental implants functionalized with carbon-based nanomaterials for insulin delivery to achieve osteogenesis and antibacterial properties for enhanced dental implant survival rates in diabetic patients.
Results: Biomimetic insect patterns are cicada, dragonfly wings, and modified gecko feet. These superhydrophobic materials reduce the adhesion force between bacteria and the surface of implants, providing an antifouling effect. Anti-infective biomimetic materials reveal bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties as well as pro-osteogenesis function mediated by nanostructured surfaces. A recent study described that dental implant coating with nanostructured hydroxyapatite and silicon-based substitutes could enhance osseointegration for the diabetic group. Animal-inspired patterns such as Sharkskin, and Plant-inspired patterns such as lotus & taro plants have antifouling and antibacterial properties. Research has demonstrated that mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) would help to improve osseointegration, which is vital for implant durability in diabetic patients. Different materials are used for implant surface coating to improve the osseointegration was attested. Insulin delivery in diabetic patients is very beneficial because it results in bone matrix development and osteoid production. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) coatings on bio-inspired dental implants can serve as a drug delivery system, which helps to deliver insulin and accelerate wound healing and osseointegration. These CNMs have antibacterial property against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and anti-inflammatory property that helps to prevent implant failures in diabetic patients.
Conclusion: Adaptability of the carbon nanomaterials for changing biomimetic dental implants that can address issues like delayed wound healing, infections, and osseointegration, create longevity dental implants and contribute to the progress of personalized dental treatment for diabetic and non-diabetic patients.
Vijay R, Mendhi J, Prasad K, Xiao Y, MacLeod J, Ostrikov K, Zhou Y. Carbon Nanomaterials Modified Biomimetic Dental Implants for Diabetic Patients. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(11):2977. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112977