Magnesium coatings in implant dentistry

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Mg coatings can improve cell behavior, osteogenic markers, and antimicrobial activity. (Photo: Shutterstock/ Ansis Klucis)
Dr. Aditya K. S.

By Dr. Aditya K. S.

Sun. 28. November 2021

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The essential trace element, magnesium (Mg), has a vital role in our human body. It has many uses in dentistry and orthopedics. We see dental implant failures in dental practices because of the loss of bone incorporation to the implant surface. Coatings of Mg have been shown to improve the adherence and osseointegration process.

A recent study investigated cell behavior, osteogenic markers, osseointegration, and effects of Mg coatings on titanium (Ti) and zirconia (Zir).

The authors propose two mechanisms—biomechanical interlocking and biochemical interaction, which influence osseointegration. Also, there are three factors—macro-retentive features, micro-retentive features, and surface modifications that improve osseointegration.

Surface coatings of Ti and Zir offer benefits with micromechanical retention and surface chemistry alteration that favor bone growth. Other materials that can be coated on implants include hydroxyapatite (HA), ceramics, calcium phosphate, bioactive glass, and fluorides, which promote osseointegration.

Mg plays an essential role in bone metabolism, and it can link with integrins, thereby promoting cell stability and adhesion properties. This systematic review tested the available evidence on the effect of Mg coatings on Ti and Zir implants, comparisons with other or no surface coatings, and analyze its effects on cell behavior, osseointegration, and osteogenic markers.

This systematic review evaluated 14 articles, out of which nine were in vitro studies, four animal model studies, and one study that was part in vitro and part animal model.

The study concluded that Mg-based coatings improved the cellular morphology, proliferation, osteogenic markers, and antimicrobial activity. Even though the results were appreciable, there was some heterogeneity among the included studies. Hence, clinical trials are required to provide conclusive observations that determine the clinical success of dental implants. 

Reference

Almehmadi AH (2021) Effect of Magnesium-Based Coatings on Titanium or Zirconia Substrates on Bone Regeneration and Implant Osseointegration- A Systematic Review. Front. Mater. 8:754697. DOI: 10.3389/fmats.2021.754697

Dental Implants Implant surface Osseointegration

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